Botanical Servey of India | Flora of India

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eFlora of India

2. Mammea suriga (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Kosterm. in Conun. For. Res. inst. melones. Bogor 72: 33, f. 19. 1961. Calophyllum suriga Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2: 608. 1832. Mammea longifolia (Wight) Planch. & Triana in Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 4, 15: 240. 1861. Calysaccion longifolium Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. tt. 1999 - 1839 & Ill. Ind. Bot. 1: 130.1840. Ochrocarpus longifolius (Wight) T. Anderson in Fl. Brit. India 1: 270.1874.

Asm.: Suklong; Beng.: Nagesar, Guj.: Rati-nahkesar; Hindi: Nagkesar; Kan.: Wundi Gardundi Laringi (male), Pune or Punay (female), Suringi, Suragi; Konk.: Rani-undi; Mal.: Seraya, Suran-punna; Mar.: Punnag, Suring;, Surang, Tambra Nagkesar (in Bombay); Or.: Churiana; Sans.: Naga-Kesaram-pushpam; Tam.: Nagap-pu, Naga- shop-pu, Nagasar-pu, Surabunnai; Tel.: Suraponna.

Evergreen trees, 12 - 18 m tall, glabrous, monoecious; wood hard, red or reddish-grey, smooth; bark rough, exfoliating in irregular pieces; sap milky, latex glands scat-tered; branchlets obscurely 4-angled; terminal bud ovate-triangular, 3 - 7 mm long. Leaves opposite or ternately verticillate at apices of branchlets, obtuse at base, dark green, shiny, glabrous, midrib stout, prominent, lateral veins few, faint, very slender, connected by a dense reticulation, marginal vein faint, at ca 1 cm from margin; petioles (5 -) 7 - 10 mm long, stout, channelled above. Inflorescences axillary, or dense fascicles on nodes of old wood or in axils of fallen leaves; peduncles short, 1-flowered. Flowers white or pinkish, ca 1 cm in diam., sweet-scented, unisexual, often bisexual in cultivation; flower buds globose, white, streaked with red; bracteoles ca 8, 1 - 1.5 mm long, subulate; pedicels slender, thickened upwards. Calyx opening into 2 valves, lobes concave, refiexed during anthesis, reddish, 5 - 7 mm long. Petals white, streaked with red, oblong-obovate, acute, up to 8 mm long, thin, deciduous. Stamens numerous (ca 60 - 100), yellow; filaments 4 - 5 mm long; anthers 2 - 2.5 mm long, linear. Ovary 2 - 2.5 mm long, depressed subglobose, 2 - 4 -locular; styles 1.5 - 3 mm long, stout, subulate; stigmas large, umbonate, peltate, obscurely sinuate or 2-lobed. Berries ca 2.5 - 3 x 1 - 1.5 cm, tipped with hard, pointed style, stipitate, 1 - 4 -seeded; pulp juicy with the flavour of rose water. Seeds ca 2 x 1 cm.

Fl. & Fr. March - July.

Distrib. India: In evergreen and deciduous forests up to 600 m. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; cultivated elsewhere in West Bengal, Assam, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.


Notes. Cultivated for its handsome foliage, sweet-scented flowers and planted as an avenue tree and in household gardens. Wood sometimes used for building purposes, planking, for masts and yards of boats and rarely as fuel. Flowers (buds) used for dyeing silk, yield a perfume, which has mild stimulant, carminative and astringent properties and used in dyspepsia and haemorrhoids; flowers used in Hindu worship and for decorating hairs. Fruits are delicious and eaten. Seeds yield a viscid gum.

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